Stomach Reduction Surgery

stomach reduction surgery

Stomach reduction surgery, or bariatric surgery as it is medically known, are surgical procedures used in the treatment of obesity. Stomach reduction surgeries aim to encourage weight loss in overweight or obese individuals and to improve or prevent health problems that may develop due to obesity. The basic principle of stomach reduction surgery is to reduce the size of the stomach, allowing the person to eat less and helping the person feel full faster. Thus, people can lose weight quickly by creating a calorie deficit in their daily diet.

Different surgical methods can be used depending on people’s current health conditions, body mass index and expectations from the surgery. After consulting a doctor who is specialized in bariatric surgery, the doctor can determine the ideal method for the patient and decide on the patient’s suitability for surgery based on the tests he will request.

Who Can Have Gastric Reduction Surgery?

Stomach reduction surgery can be performed on people who are between the ages of 18 and 65 and whose health conditions are suitable for surgery. Since anesthesia will be applied during the surgery, people should not have any allergies to anesthesia. In addition, patients must meet certain criteria accepted in the world literature in order to apply for surgery. At this point, body mass index (BMI) comes into question. BMI is a value calculated by dividing a person’s weight by the square of their height in meters. This value shows people’s obesity levels. People suitable for surgery and their BMI values ​​are as follows.

  • People with a body mass index of 40 kg/m2
  • People with a body mass index between 35-40 kg/m2
  • People with a body mass index between 30 and 34.9 kg/m2 and some metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea or hypertension
  • People with a body mass index over 30 kg/m2 and metabolic diseases and previous unsuccessful diet attempts

What are the Types of Gastric Reduction Surgery?

The field of bariatric surgery continues to develop day by day. There are some types of stomach reduction surgery that have been performed frequently in recent years and provide successful results. Some common types of stomach reduction surgeries are as follows.

Gastric Sleeve Surgery

Gastric sleeve surgery is based on removing approximately 75% of the stomach and shaping the stomach into a thin tube. These steps, which create a significant decrease in stomach volume, enables the patient to eat less and become full quickly. In addition, during the surgery, the part of the stomach that produces the hunger hormone is removed and the aim is to help patients control their hunger. The surgery is a closed surgery performed using laparoscopic methods. Gastric sleeve surgery is an irreversible surgical method.

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, one of the most commonly applied surgical methods, is a surgery that intervenes in both the stomach and intestines. During the surgery, a part of the stomach is disabled and the stomach is reduced in size. The reshaped small stomach and the duodenum are combined. Thus, a part of the intestine is disabled. The exposed organ shapes resemble the letter “Y”. While the amount of food consumed by the patient is limited by surgery, the amount of food absorption is also limited due to the disabled part of the intestine.

Adjustable Gastric Band

In this procedure, a thin band is placed in the upper part of the stomach. This band shrinks the upper part of the stomach, allowing food to pass into the stomach more slowly. Adjustable gastric band is a method that stands out with its mechanical effects rather than its effect on hormonal balance. This method that limits stomach volume is especially preferred because it is reversible.

Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) and BPD/DS

The stomach reduction surgery method with the largest intervention area is biliopancreatic diversion surgery. In this procedure, both the stomach and most of the intestines are removed. Thus, it is aimed to reduce the amount of food consumed and to significantly reduce the absorption of nutrients. During the intervention, a small pocket is created in the stomach and the stomach volume is significantly reduced. A significant part of the small intestine is disabled and the newly created stomach and intestine structure are connected to each other. This type of surgery has quite serious steps compared to other stomach reduction surgeries. For this reason, it is only recommended to patients who are morbidly obese.

How Much Weight Can Be Lost After Stomach Reduction Surgery?

How much weight will be lost after stomach reduction surgery may vary from person to person and depends on many factors. These factors include the type of surgery, the person’s starting weight, age, gender, lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity level. However, in general, it is observed that people experience significant weight loss after stomach reduction surgery.

People experience maximum weight loss in the first year after surgery. While weight loss is maximum in the first 6 months, the rate of weight loss slows down as one year approaches. At the end of one year, people can usually lose approximately 50 to 70% of their starting weight.

More complex stomach reduction surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, generally provide greater weight loss. After these surgeries, people generally experience a weight loss of 60 to 80 percent of their initial weight in the first year after surgery.

Weight loss depends on maintaining the person’s lifestyle and dietary habits as well as the post-operative period. Compliance with postoperative nutrition and exercise rules may affect weight loss. In addition, doctor follow-up and psychological support in the postoperative period are also important.

What is the Recovery Process After Surgery?

The post-operative recovery process may vary depending on the person’s type of surgery, surgical techniques, personal health status, and post-surgical care. After stomach reduction surgery, patients stay in the hospital for a few days. The length of hospital stay may vary to ensure postoperative follow-up and prevent the risk of complications.

After stomach reduction surgery, it is very important to eat within the scope of the doctor’s recommendations and under the supervision of a dietitian. During the first few days after surgery, patients consume only liquid food. Liquid diet; It is important in supporting gastric healing, reducing the risk of bloating or complications. After about the first 10 days, people slowly switch to soft solid foods. In this period when the amount of food is quite limited, vegetable purees, broths or fruit purees are consumed. Afterwards, meal plans are made under the control of a dietitian. The prioritised nutritions during the transition to normal solid food may need to be planned according to the patient’s current health condition.

The patient can slowly begin physical activity in the postoperative period. Exercise may be limited initially due to any pain and discomfort after surgery, but can be increased over time after consulting with the doctor.

What are the Risks of Gastric Reduction Surgeries?

Surgeries have potential risks. The amount of complications that may be encountered varies depending on the type of surgery preferred. Surgeries such as Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass or Biliopancreatic Diversion (BPD) and BPD/DS have a higher risk than sleeve gastrectomy surgeries.

After stomach reduction surgery; There may be risks such as infection at the surgery site, development of thrombosis or embolism, stomach injury, leakage between the stomach and intestines, development of reflux or gastritis reflux disease.

Following your doctor’s instructions before and after surgery and going to regular medical check-ups can reduce the risk of complications.